The 45-70 Government calibre, also known as the "45-70", 45-70 Springfield and 45-70 Mle1873, was created in the USA in 1871 and used as a military cartridge there until 1892. It was also French Army issue for reservists and second-line troops until 1918, Russian Army issue until 1903, and issued in Japan and other countries. After falling out of military favour, the 45-70 was immediately adopted by big-game hunters who saw it as high performance hunting ammunition that fully satisfied the needs of the day. Thanks to its very acceptable ballistic performance when firing up to 100 metres, the ease with which it could be reloaded in isolated areas where ammunition was hard to come by, its effectiveness in shooting further than with a conventional hunting gun, this venerable cartridge is still used to hunt big game despite its physical characteristics not having changed since the days of black powder, although it has improved ballistically. Winchester sells a highly optimised modern load with a pleasing reputation for effectiveness for the 45-70 calibre, with a 19.44-gram, 1,880 fps, semi-armoured hollow point bullet that is ideal for trackers and hunters shooting over short range.